The PASS (Planning, Attention-arousal, and Simultaneous-successive )THEORY of intelligence has been developed by J.P Das, Jack Naglieri, and Kirby (1994).They proposed that three functional units of brain determine the intellectual activity of an individual. These three units are responsible for planning, arousal/attention and simultaneous/Successive processing These PASS processes are interactive in nature yet each has its own distinctive functions.
Attention-Arousal: This process is basic to any behavior and it is processed by 1st functional unit of brain that involves the ability to selectively attend to stimuli while ignoring other distractions. Arousal keeps people awake ana alert .The arousal functions are generally associated with the brain stem and thalamus. Individuals with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) have impairments in this area. An optimal level of arousal focuses our attention to the relevant portion of a problem.
Simultaneous Processing: This involves the ability to integrate separate stimuli/information to our knowledge system as a interrelated whole. The occipital and parietal lobes are thought to be important for these functions. For example, in Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) Test, a design is given and one of its part has been removed. We are required to choose one of the six options which completes the design. Simultaneous processing helps us in finding relationship between the given abstract figures. Simultaneous processing is broadly with occipital and parietal lobes.
Successive Processing: This involves the ability to integrate stimuli/information into a sequential order. Learning of digits, alphabets, multiplication tables, etc. are examples of successive processing. This type of processing is related to temporal lobe.
Planning: This is the ability of an individual to make decisions about how to solve problems and how to carry out the task. It involves setting goals, courses of action to reach the goal and anticipating their consequences. Planning is associated with the frontal lobes of the brain.