Motherhood is not only a beautiful and rewarding journey but also a tough one. Mother is the one who shapes an individual with care and love. Mother is the one who makes all sacrifices to bring happiness into a child’s life. She is the one who always stands besides her child like a shadow. There is no great warrior than a mother protecting her child. She is the one who teaches the child how to live life and make wise decision even in the toughest situation. Every mother deserves our thanks and appreciation.
But on this mother’s day, I especially want to appreciate all mothers who has special need children. For them, every day is a battle. Whether it is to assist their child in performing daily chores or help in learning new skill, she comes across lot of challenges and difficulties day in and day out. But their never give up attitude helps her to win all these battles. When the whole world including the child’s father lose faith on the child’s ability then her determination, patience and splendid perseverance takes the child to next level of learning. She ignores the words of others and focus on the betterment of her child’s future. Everyday they see other children doing more. But their understanding nature makes no big expectations from the child. They are more than happy if their child learn the word “ Maa” or if their child learns to wave goodbye or if the child learns to eat with spoon or if a child starts identify “ A” after a long wait or if their child starts expressing their basic needs or perform any other age appropriate activity. Most of the moms with a special need child engage in constant battle with school, neighbourhood, insurance company etc which is really exhausting and tiring but still they don’t lose hope and work hard to make sure that their children get what they deserve.
Let’s all take a moment to admire these mothers. Our small initiative can make the world a better place. I agree, it is difficult to understand what it is like to walk in their shoes but still our positive and caring behaviour towards these children can bring some relief to all these stressed out moms and bring happiness to the little ones. You don’t have to be a birth mother to show your unconditional love for them. Yes, a mother’s love comes can come in any way, shape or form and it is beautifully shown in the latest NIVEA ad which is a tribute to everyone who is #just like MAA.
Children are great imitators — especially the very young kids love to imitate their parents and caregivers. We often see young children imitating the sounds they hear around them, or trying to carry out activities done by their parents, and hence learn many behaviors by observing others around them.
The great psychologist, Albert Bandura, also emphasized observational learning in his theory which comprises four stages:
- Attention: It includes paying attention to the behavior of model to learn.
- Retention: It can be done through many opportunities to remember them.
- Production: Demonstrating and practicing the behavior by doing repeatedly.
- Motivational/reinforcement: This stage includes getting motivation to repeat the behavior. Encouragement and rewards are given for continuous practicing of the skill.
Lets understand the whole concept by citing an example:
A child watches his mother saying goodbye to his father everyday when he leaves for office in the morning. The child pays attention and learns this behavior comfortably as his mother does this action every day. He also starts saying goodbye to his father when he leaves for office. Both the parents feel happy and show positive response to his behavior. The child learns this behavior is good and does it every morning.
As said, children are great imitators, so give them something great to imitate. Parents and caregivers must understand how to behave in front of children. For a toddler, imitation marks a major milestone and parents are under constant observation. Parents and caregivers can take advantage of social learning theory and help the child to learn social skills, to understand what is morally right, to choose between right and wrong, to adopt positive behavior etc.
There are times when we feel irritated and frustrated of not being able to recall the things from memory. Forgetting is a very common problem and we are experiencing it time-to-time. Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885) was the first person to conduct scientific research on forgetting. Let us try to understand the reasons of forgetting. Some of the major reasons are
Retrieval failure is inability to retrieve information from long term memory and that is one of the most common causes of forgetting. Here information is stored in long term memory, but cannot be accessed. It cannot be accessed because the retrieval cues (these are aids which helps in recovering information stored in memory) are not present.
One another reason of retrieval failure is known as decay theory. According to this theory, a memory trace is created every time a new theory is formed. But these memory traces begin to fade and disappear if it is not used or rehearsed for a long time. But this theory did not have adequate evidence hence it leads to some other theory like interference
There are two basic types of interference:
This theory assumes that storing of information involves associations between items in the memory. People keep acquiring more such associations over time and each of these stored independently without any mutual conflict. But at the time of information retrieval various sets of associations compete with each other for retrieval or we can say information to be retrieved interfere with each other.
Proactive interference is when previously learned information makes it more difficult to remember new information.
Retroactive interference occurs when new information interferes with remembering previously learned information.
Failure to Store:- One of the main reasons of forgetting is encoding failure. Some of the information fails to enter our long term memory as a result Forgetting due to encoding failure is not a case of “not remembering” or simply “forgetting”; Actual reason is “not storing” information to long-term memory
Motivated Forgetting:- People may forget their traumatic and painful experiences either consciously or unconsciously The two basic forms of motivated forgetting are: suppression, a conscious form of forgetting, and repression, an unconscious form of forgetting.
Repression is a method where people subconsciously push unpleasant or traumatic thoughts and feelings into their unconscious mind. Thought Suppression is goal-directed and it includes conscious strategies to forget, such as changing the thoughts or context intentionally
Confidence is built slowly. There is no way to fix the solution quickly. Don’t be upset for having low-confidence. It can be improved .Be focused and have strong determination.
Self-practice: Your confidence will improve with practice. Close watch all your habits and body language and if you feel that some improvement is required,start practicing from today. Some of the examples which can help you increase you confidence are walking confidently, speaking confidently, keeping yourself clean and fresh, having a good posture, reading inspirational books and engaging yourself in some creative work and many more.
Say big ‘NO’ to self-doubt – Replace your thoughts with more confident ones. Regenerate your negative thoughts with positive thoughts like “I know I’ll end up looking like a fool if I share my views with them” with “Let me put my ideas in front of others, I hope everyone will get help from these ideas.”
Accept criticism positively – No one in the world knows everything. Everyone is good at some thing and not so good at others. Don’t feel nervous or upset if someone criticizes your work. Take it is an opportunity to improve and learn from someone who does better than you.
Be aware of your strength and weakness – Embrace your strengths, and build upon them. After all, your strengths will help you achieve your dream. Accept your weakness. Don’t be afraid to ask people for help – they can add value where you are weaker
Join some organization as a volunteer in your free time. Here you can meet new and different people and get a platform to socialize with them. This will build confidence and decrease social anxiety while talking to someone.
Hope it helps!
1. Try to sit in the first row of the class.I t will help you a lot on focusing in the class and managing all types of distraction.
2. Participate actively in the class.Engage yourself in the discussion.The more engaged you are with the lecture, the more you’ll want to concentrate on it.
3. Turn off your phone during lecture.
4. Take notes during lecture .Writing down the information should help you to concentrate on topic and keep your brain from wandering.
5. Distractions might be due to some physical reason – you’re hungry, or feeling sleepy, or sitting next to noisy classmates, any of these reasons can be solved to improve concentration.
6. Try to cover the topic at home before attending the lecture. Otherwise, you’ll probably be pretty clueless as what is going in the class, and that will make it next to impossible to pay attention.
7. Take a brief break during lecture is a good idea. When you feel your ability to concentrate starting to slip, then change something. Get another pen from your bag. Cross your other leg. Stretch your muscles. It will help you to get you back on track.
Trait theories try to describe the personality of an individual in terms of traits. Traits are the building blocks of personality and having continuous dimension. We can say that a trait is a stable quality or enduring attribute on which individual differ from each other. They are source of individuality.
Many psychologists like Gordon Allport, Raymond Catell, Eysenck have used these traits to formulate their theories of personality that we discuss in our next section:-
Allport’s trait theory:-
Golden Allport is the pioneer of trait approach. As per him, there are approximately 4000 words are present in dictionary which described personal traits. He categorized these traits into three levels:
a)Cardinal Trait: These traits are basically dominate an individual’s entire life and every behavior seems noticeable to its influence Such traits are often get associated with the name of the person very strongly. Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violence and Hitler’s Nazism are examples of cardinal traits.
b)Central Trait:-These traits are less pervasive than cardinal traits but still has good impact on individual’s personality. These traits are often used in writing a testimonial or job recommendation for a individual. e.g warm ,sincere, diligent etc.
c) Secondary Trait:-These traits are less generalized and less consistent of a person.For example food habits hair styles are examples of secondary traits.
Catell trait approach.;-
Raymond Catell is one of the most influential trait theorist .He believed that there were many redundant and irrelevant data traits those summed up to make Alport 4000 words to describe personality traits. He was then applied a statistical technique known as factor analysis to identify traits that are related to one another. By doing this, he was able to reduce his list to 16 key personality factors.Those traits are:-
- Warmth (A)
- Reasoning (B)
- Emotional Stability (C)
- Dominance (E)
- Liveliness (F)
- Rule-consciousness (G)
- Social Boldness (H)
- Sensitivity (I)
- Vigilance (L)
- Abstractedness (M)
- Privateness (N)
- Apprehension/Apprehensiveness (O)
- Openness to change (Q1)
- Self-reliance (Q2)
- Perfectionism (Q3)
- Tension (Q4)
These traits are also known as source traits , also called primary traits, that make up the most basic structure of the personality. These traits are stable and smaller in number.Surface traits are those traits which come out due to interaction of the source traits. They are observable qualities of a personality like kindness, honesty, helpfulness etc.
Example. Shyness, quiet, and disliking crowds might all be surface traits but source trait is introversion, a tendency to withdraw from excessive stimulation.He proposed a test called sixteen personality factor questionnaires for the assessment of personality.
British psychologist Hans Eysenck developed a model of personality that are biologically and genetically based. He believed that personality is hierarchically organized, consisting of types, traits and habits.At tle lowest level are the single responses like thoughts and actions. When these responses regularly occur , they form habits.The related habits form traits and several traits clustered together to form a type.Eysenck described 3 major dimensions that include a number of specific traits:-
1. Extraversion/Introversion:-It refers to the degree to which an individual are socially outgoing or socially withdrawn in nature. People who are extraversion in nature highly active, lively, friendly and thrill seeking. On the other hand people those are introversion in nature are passive, reserved, shy and silent.
2. Neuroticism vs Emotional stability:-It refers to the degree to which an individual has control over their emotions. Neurotics are emotionally unstable people having high anxiety levels.they are highly moody,touchy restless and very much impulsive in nature, But, people who are emotionally stable are calm, even-tempered, reliable and easygoing.
3. Psychotism vs Sociability:-Those who are psychotics are tend to be hostile,egocentric and antisocial. These traits are very much opposite to those who are sociable.
Five factor model of personality:-
This theory is also known as Big five factor theory and suggested by Paul Costa and Robert McCrae.
1. Extraversion(E):This factor assess the individual ‘s interpersonal interaction with others. Those are high scorer in this factor are socially active, outgoing ,talkative and fun loving whereas opposite to this traits are individuals who are reserved, sober, quiet, shy.
2. Neuroticism(N):- Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness whereas low scorers on this dimension are calm,relaxed and well-adjusted.
3.Conscientiousness:- Individuals high in this trait tend to be organized,systematic,punctual, dependable reliable and responsible.Those who are low scorers on this dimensions are lazy, unreliable,irresponsible and negligent.
4. Agreeableness(A):-Those who are high scorer on this dimension having helpful, co-operative, friendly and caring in nature. On the opposite are people who are uncooperative,I rritable, manipulative and suspicious.
5. Openness(O):Those who having high score on this dimension are curious, imaginative, love to explore new and unfamiliar thing. On the opposite are people who are unfriendly, rigid, arguementive and even hostile.
Personality is one of the psychological attributes which make an individual’s characteristics and behavior distinct and unique. Although there is no single definition of personality, but In general we can say that personalities are those relatively permanent traits, dispositions or characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior.”
There are mainly 3 factors that influenced an individual’s personality:-
- Biological factors:-It relates with body builds, physical defects ,Health issues etc.
- Psychological factors:-It relates with intellectual thinking, emotional factors, achievement, aspiration etc.
- Environmental factors:-Education, social acceptance, social deprivation, family etc.
As all these above factors determine individual’s personality so these factors are known as determinants of personality.
Many approaches and theories have been developed by psychologists to understand the behavioral differences among individual. They are described below.
a)Type approach:-This approach suggests that there are separate and discontinuous categories into which a person fits. MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) typology is modern one and based on Carl Jung’s theory of personality types. Types are not descriptive of the individual and place the individual into a preconceived category.
b)Trait approach:- This approach tries to describe the personality of an individual in terms of traits. Traits are the building blocks of personality and having continuous dimension. They are source of individuality. Under this approach, the proposals of Allport, Catell, Eysenck Guilford and the five factor model are taken into consideration.
c) Psychodynamic approach:-This approach proposed that individual’s unconscious motives, desires , unsolved conflicts that has been repressed or childhood experiences play a very important role in shaping one’s personality. Sigmund Freud, a noted psychologist, provided the core concepts for this perspective.
d) Behavioral approach:-According to this, behaviorists like Skinner and Pavlov believe that personality can be best understood as the response of an individual to the environment. They proposed that learning experiences are the main reason behind our individual differences in our behavior.
e) Cultural approach:- Culture refers to the shared values, beliefs and norms of a specific group of people. This approach tells that culture plays a vital role in behavioral variations among individuals.
f) Humanistic approach:-This emphasize on individual’s tendency to express his potential, talents and capabilities that basically directs him to actualize his inherited nature. The humanist approach to personality has been developed by famous theorists like Rogers, Kelly and Maslow.
A formal test that is done to analyze the personality of an individual is known as assessment of personality. The goal of the test is to predict an individual’s behavior with a high degree of accuracy. Personality assessment measures are classified into three categories.
- Self report measures of personality.
- Projective or Indirect measures of personality.
- Situational measures of personality.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian neurologist and physician. His contribution to determine personality of an individual by psychodynamic approach is remarkable. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud believed that sources and consequences of emotional conflicts operate on three levels of awareness: the preconscious, the conscious, and the unconscious. This is famously known as Freud’s theory of personality.
The conscious mind: It includes everything like thoughts, feelings and actions of which people are currently aware of. For example: while having your breakfast, your mind might be thinking about the recipe or taste of the dish. These thoughts occur in the conscious mind.
The Preconscious mind:-Preconscious mind includes all mental activities which are not presently active but stored somewhere in our memory. It can be easily accessed when required. For example: if you are asked about some interesting childhood incidents, you would pull it from your memory and can share it.
The unconscious mind :-It includes mental activity that people are unaware of. According to him, some of the feelings , thoughts, urges and emotions that our conscious mind wants to hide, buried into unconscious mind ,influence some of our unexplained behavior. For example; Ravi ‘s family has recently shifted to new place .There he makes some new friends in his neighborhood. While playing, he calls one of his playmate with his old friend’s name. This is due to the thoughts or feelings of old days which still plays in his unconscious mind.
These three levels of mind often represented as an iceberg. Everything above the water represents conscious awareness, while everything below the water represents the preconscious and unconsciousness. Only 10% of an iceberg is visible (conscious) whereas the other 90% is under the water (preconscious and unconscious).The Preconscious mind covers 10% -15% whereas the Unconscious is allotted to 75%-80%.
Emotional intelligence is one of the popular topics among psychologist. Some experts believe that emotional intelligence is more important than IQ. Emotional intelligence is the ability of an individual to identify, control and manage your own emotions as well as emotions of others. A highly intelligent person with god academic record does not necessary to be successful in life. They may have experience problems and difficulties in their personal life and workplace. Some psychologist believes that the reason behind their problems may be due to lack of emotional intelligence. This concept was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer in 1990. They defined emotional intelligence as, “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions”. Emotional quotient is used to measure the emotional intelligence .
Emotional intelligence is receiving increasing attention in schools and also in workplace. Programs done in schools to increase emotional intelligence of students that helps them to deal with stress, anxiety and other challenges. This training encourages students to adopt cooperative behavior and reduce antisocial activities. Similarly people who have high EQ seem to be more successful in workplace. An article published in Psychology Today suggests that novels are best ways to enhance our emotional intelligence skills.
There is also Dark side of emotional intelligence. Evidences show that when people having high emotional intelligence, they start using this characteristics to manipulate others, disguising their own true feelings and mainly concerns about their self-serving motives.
The PASS (Planning, Attention-arousal, and Simultaneous-successive )THEORY of intelligence has been developed by J.P Das, Jack Naglieri, and Kirby (1994).They proposed that three functional units of brain determine the intellectual activity of an individual. These three units are responsible for planning, arousal/attention and simultaneous/Successive processing These PASS processes are interactive in nature yet each has its own distinctive functions.
Attention-Arousal: This process is basic to any behavior and it is processed by 1st functional unit of brain that involves the ability to selectively attend to stimuli while ignoring other distractions. Arousal keeps people awake ana alert .The arousal functions are generally associated with the brain stem and thalamus. Individuals with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) have impairments in this area. An optimal level of arousal focuses our attention to the relevant portion of a problem.
Simultaneous Processing: This involves the ability to integrate separate stimuli/information to our knowledge system as a interrelated whole. The occipital and parietal lobes are thought to be important for these functions. For example, in Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) Test, a design is given and one of its part has been removed. We are required to choose one of the six options which completes the design. Simultaneous processing helps us in finding relationship between the given abstract figures. Simultaneous processing is broadly with occipital and parietal lobes.
Successive Processing: This involves the ability to integrate stimuli/information into a sequential order. Learning of digits, alphabets, multiplication tables, etc. are examples of successive processing. This type of processing is related to temporal lobe.
Planning: This is the ability of an individual to make decisions about how to solve problems and how to carry out the task. It involves setting goals, courses of action to reach the goal and anticipating their consequences. Planning is associated with the frontal lobes of the brain.