Monthly Archives: January 2015

Emotional Intelligence

Emotional intelligence is one of the popular topics among psychologist. Some experts believe that emotional intelligence is more important than IQ. Emotional intelligence is the ability of an individual to identify, control and manage your own emotions as well as emotions of others. A highly intelligent person with god academic record does not necessary to be successful in life. They may have experience problems and difficulties in their personal life and workplace. Some psychologist believes that the reason behind their problems may be due to lack of emotional intelligence. This concept was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer in 1990. They defined emotional intelligence as, “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions”. Emotional quotient is used to measure the emotional intelligence .

Emotional intelligence is receiving increasing attention in schools and also in workplace. Programs done in schools to increase emotional intelligence of students that helps them to deal with stress, anxiety and other challenges. This training encourages students to adopt cooperative behavior and reduce antisocial activities. Similarly people who have high EQ seem to be more successful in workplace. An article published in Psychology Today suggests that novels are best ways to enhance our emotional intelligence skills.

There is also Dark side of emotional intelligence. Evidences show that when people having high emotional intelligence, they start using this characteristics to manipulate others, disguising their own true feelings and mainly concerns about their self-serving motives.

http://www.forbes.com/sites/travisbradberry/2015/01/27/13-habits-of-exceptionally-likeable-people/

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/who-am-i/201501/want-be-nicer-person-read-novel

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PASS Theory of Intelligence

The PASS (Planning, Attention-arousal, and Simultaneous-successive )THEORY of intelligence has been developed by J.P Das, Jack Naglieri, and Kirby (1994).They proposed that three functional units of brain determine the intellectual activity of an individual. These three units are responsible for planning, arousal/attention and simultaneous/Successive processing These PASS processes are interactive in nature yet each has its own distinctive functions.

Attention-Arousal:  This process is basic to any behavior and it is processed by 1st functional unit of brain that involves the ability to selectively attend to stimuli while ignoring other distractions. Arousal keeps people awake ana alert .The arousal functions are generally associated with the brain stem and thalamus. Individuals with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) have impairments in this area. An optimal level of arousal focuses our attention to the relevant portion of a problem.

Simultaneous Processing: This involves the ability to integrate separate stimuli/information to our knowledge system as a interrelated whole. The occipital and parietal lobes are thought to be important for these functions. For example, in Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) Test, a design is given and one of its part has been removed. We are required to choose one of the six options which completes the design. Simultaneous processing helps us in finding relationship between the given abstract figures. Simultaneous processing is broadly with occipital and parietal lobes.

Successive Processing:  This involves the ability to integrate stimuli/information into a sequential order. Learning of digits, alphabets, multiplication tables, etc. are examples of successive processing. This type of processing is related to temporal lobe.

Planning:  This is the ability of an individual to make decisions about how to solve problems and how to carry out the task. It involves setting goals, courses of action to  reach the goal and anticipating their consequences. Planning is associated with the frontal lobes of the brain.

Theories of intelligence

Some of the major theories of intelligence that have emerged during the last 100 years are given below:

Charles Spearman: Charles Spearman in 1927 proposed two factor theory of intelligence.According to him , intelligence consisted of a general factor and some specific factor. Genearal factor is g factor which is a single factor and correlated with specific abilities. G factor is responsible for overall performance of an individual. It includes all mental operation which is very common to all people. S factor is the specific abilities present in every individual which allow a person to excel in his/her own respective domains.

Louis Thurstone: Louis Leon Thurstone (born May 29, 1887, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.—died September 29, 1955) was an  American psychologist who was especially concerned with the measurement of people’s intelligence.He proposed theory of primary mental abilities that states intelligence consists of 7 primary mental abilities each of which is relatively independent of the others. They are:

  • Word fluency,
  • Verbal comprehension,
  • Spatial visualization,
  • Number facility,
  • Associative memory,
  • Inductive Reasoning
  • Perceptual speed.

J.P. Guilford: J.P. Guilford proposed the structure of-intellect model which classifies intellectual traits among three dimensions: operations, contents and products.

  • Operations are what respondent does. There are 6 kinds of operations — cognition, memory recording, memory retention, divergent production, convergent production, evaluation.
  • Contents refer to the nature of materials or information on which intellectual operations are performed. There are 5 kinds of contents — visual, auditory, symbolic (eg. letters and numbers), semantic(eg. words), and behavioral (e.g. information about people’s behavior, attitudes, needs).
  •  Products refer to the form in which information is processed by the respondent. There are 6 kinds of products (units, classes, relations, systems, transformations, and implications).

Since each of these dimensions is independent, there are theoretically 180 (6*5*6) different components of intelligence.

Howard Gardner: Howard Gardner proposed the theory of multiple intelligence. According to him, intelligence is not a single entity but consisted of distinct type of intelligence. Dr. Gardner proposes eight different intelligences and put forth the concept that each of these intelligences are independent of each other. He proposed that out of these the 8 primary intelligence, an individual may excel in one, two or even three of these, but nobody’s good at them all.

  1. Linguistic – It is the capacity to use language fluently and flexibly to express one’s thinking and understand others.
  2. Musical – It is the capacity to play musical instrument, create music and manipulate rhythm .Also have sensitivity to speech and tone.
  3.  Logical-Mathematical – This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning, numbers and critical thinking.
  4. Spatial – It is the ability to form mental image and to visualize with the mind’s eye
  5. Bodily-kinesthetic – It uses whole or portion of the body flexibility and creativity to solve problems.
  6. Interpersonal – This includes sensitivity to others behaviors and understanding of  others feelings, moods, temperaments and motivations.
  7. Intrapersonal – Awareness of one’s own feelings, motives, and desires.
  8. Social – Sensitivity to motives, feelings, and behaviors of others.

Robert Sternberg: Robert Sternberg (1985) proposed the triarchic theory of intelligence. Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence represents the information-processing approach to understand intelligence.According to this theory, there are three basic types of intelligence.

  1.  Componential or Analytical intelligence – This component refers to problem-solving abilities which including knowledge acquisition and learning the ways of doing things, planning concerning what to do and how to do and performance involves actually doing things.
  2. Experiential or Creative intelligence – It has the ability to make new inventions and discoveries. This intelligence involved in using past experiences creatively to solve new problem.
  3. Contextual or Practical intelligence– This component has the ability to apply knowledge to practice and involves the ability to deal with the situation encountered in daily basis.

Intelligence

Intelligence is one of the main topics in psychology. In our surrounding we can notice each and every individual behave differently and distinctively. Psychologists say these variations among individual’s characteristics and behaviors are due to individual difference. These behaviors according to them are influenced by either personal traits or situational factors. Psychological attributes like intelligence, personality, Values, Aptitude etc are set of characteristics determined by personal traits are used for psychological assessment to predict future behavior.

According to oxford dictionary, Intelligence is the power of perceiving, learning, understanding and knowing. Apart from this, psychologists also have suggested definitions of intelligence like Alfred Binet , who defined intelligence is the ability to judge well, understand well and reason well. Gardner and Sternberg have suggested that an intelligent individual not only adapts to the environment, but also actively modifies or shapes it. As per David Wechsler, intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.

There are two kind of intelligence

Crystallized Intelligence: Crystallized intelligence is defined as the acquiring knowledge and skills that comes from prior learning and past experiences. This type of intelligence is based upon facts .Many psychologist believe that Crystallized Intelligence increases with our age as we acquire new knowledge and skills with each passing day. Example of this intelligence includes reading comprehension and vocabulary exams.

Fluid Intelligence: Fluid intelligence is the ability of an individual to think and reason abstractly and solve problems. Example of a fluid intelligence is solving puzzles and coming up with problem solving strategies.

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